What our licences do
Licence design and rationale
All Creative Commons licences have many important features in common. Every licence helps creators — we call them licensors if they use our tools — retain copyright while allowing others to copy, distribute, and make some uses of their work — at least non-commercially. Every Creative Commons licence also ensures licensors get the credit for their work they deserve. Every Creative Commons licence works around the world and lasts as long as applicable copyright lasts (because they are built on copyright). These common features serve as the baseline, on top of which licensors can choose to grant additional permissions when deciding how they want their work to be used.
A Creative Commons licensor answers a few simple questions on the path to choosing a licence — first, do I want to allow commercial use or not, and then second, do I want to allow derivative works or not? If a licensor decides to allow derivative works, she may also choose to require that anyone who uses the work — we call them licensees — to make that new work available under the same licence terms. We call this idea “Share Alike” and it is one of the mechanisms that (if chosen) helps the digital commons grow over time. Share Alike is inspired by the GNU Public Licence, used by many free and open source software projects.
Our licences do not affect freedoms that the law grants to users of creative works otherwise protected by copyright, such as exceptions and limitations to copyright law like fair dealing. Creative Commons licences require licensees to get permission to do any of the things with a work that the law reserves exclusively to a licensor and that the licence does not expressly allow. Licensees must credit the licensor, keep copyright notices intact on all copies of the work, and link to the licence from copies of the work. Licensees cannot use technological measures to restrict access to the work by others.
Three “Layers” Of Licences
Our public copyright licences incorporate a unique and innovative “three-layer” design. Each licence begins as a traditional legal tool, in the kind of language and text formats that most lawyers know and love. We call this the Legal Code layer of each licence.
But since most creators, educators, and scientists are not in fact lawyers, we also make the licences available in a format that normal people can read — the Commons Deed (also known as the “human-readable” version of the licence). The Commons Deed is a handy reference for licensors and licensees, summarizing and expressing some of the most important terms and conditions. Think of the Commons Deed as a user-friendly interface to the Legal Code beneath, although the Deed itself is not a licence, and its contents are not part of the Legal Code itself.
The final layer of the licence design recognizes that software, from search engines to office productivity to music editing, plays an enormous role in the creation, copying, discovery, and distribution of works. In order to make it easy for the Web to know when a work is available under a Creative Commons licence, we provide a “machine-readable” version of the licence — a summary of the key freedoms and obligations written into a format that software systems, search engines, and other kinds of technology can understand. We developed a standardized way to describe licences that software can understand called CC Rights Expression Language (CC REL) to accomplish this.
Searching for open content is an important function enabled by our approach. You can use Google to search for Creative Commons content, look for pictures at Flickr, albums at Jamendo, and general media at spinxpress. The Wikimedia Commons, the multimedia repository of Wikipedia, is a core user of our licences as well.
Taken together, these three layers of licences ensure that the spectrum of rights isn’t just a legal concept. It’s something that the creators of works can understand, their users can understand, and even the Web itself can understand.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.